Abstract Background: The presence of dyslipidemia and behavioral aspects are determinants of cardiovascular risk, especially in childhood and adolescence. Objective: To verify possible relationships between dyslipidemia, cultural factors, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in schoolchildren. Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated a sample of 1,254 children and adolescents between the ages of 7 and 17 from the South of Brazil, 686 of whom were female. Dyslipidemia was defined as increased levels of at least one of the following lipid profile parameters: triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and fractions of high (HDL-c) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c). Cultural aspects were evaluated by a self-reported questionnaire. Data were analyzed by logistic regression, considering the odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI) at 95%. Results: The results revealed a high prevalence of dyslipidemia (41.9%), which was associated with female sex (OR: 1.56; IC: 1.24-1.96) and overweight/obese status (OR: 1.55; IC: 1.20-2.00). When lipid profile parameters were evaluated separately, high levels of LDL-c were observed to be associated with sedentary school transport (OR: 1.59; IC: 1.20-2.09). Schoolchildren who were overweight/obese had higher chances of elevated levels of TC (OR: 1.40; IC: 1.07-1.84) and TG (OR: 3.21; IC: 1.96-5.26). HDL-c was shown to be related to high television time (OR: 1.59; IC: 1.00-2.54). Conclusion: Alterations in lipid parameters are associated with cultural factors, especially those related to sedentary lifestyle and low levels of CRF.