Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a common autoimmune disorder characterized by decreased platelet count (thrombocytopenia) and bleeding symptoms due to production of autoantibodies against platelets. Chemokines are molecules inducing chemotaxis and play an important role in megakaryopoiesis, including CXCR4 chemokine receptor. CXCR4 is expressed on cells of megakaryocytic series, especially platelets, and triggers several mechanisms in these cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pattern of CXCR4 gene changes upon diagnosis and after treatment and its comparison with laboratory findings in peripheral blood samples from newly diagnosed ITP patients. 35 newly diagnosed patients with ITP and 35 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. CXCR4 gene expression was investigated before and after treatment using real-time PCR. HPRT gene was used as the reference gene to calculate the expression rate of CXCR4 as CXCR4/HPRT ratio. CXCR4 gene expression upon diagnosis and after treatment in peripheral blood plasma of ITP patients showed a significant decrease in comparison with the control group while its expression did not change before and after treatment. No significant correlation was found between the expression of this gene and laboratory parameters. Due to unpredictable course of ITP in patients and the possibility of its progress to refractory form, accurate choice of a biomarker is essential for evaluating prognosis and detection of resistant forms.