Very few studies have focused on the relationship between cognitive functions and clinical features in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Subjects with BPD and healthy controls were administered the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status, Trail Making Test A and B, and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-53) was used to assess the severity of current symptoms. Attachment style was assessed with the Experiences in Close Relationship Questionnaire, identity integration with the Personality Structure Questionnaire, and other domains of personality dysfunction with the RUDE Scale for Personality Dysfunction. Patients with BPD performed significantly worse than healthy controls in all cognitive domains. Cognitive functions, particularly delayed memory and visuospatial abilities, displayed meaningful associations with trait-like clinical features, above the effect of global cognition and state psychopathology. These findings highlight the need to evaluate effects of cognitive rehabilitation on trait features among individuals with BPD.