In order to investigate useful indicators of lead contamination, 108 Japanese Black calves from a lead-contaminated farm were used. The lead concentrations in blood (Ph-B), delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) activities, and free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP) concentrations were examined. A significant negative correlation was obtained between Pb-B concentrations and ALA-D activities (r = -0.621, p < 0.01). A significant positive correlation was obtained between Ph-B concentrations and FEP concentrations (r = 0.850, p < 0.01). The calves were divided by Pb-B concentrations (micrograms/100 ml) into 5 groups (A = < or = 30, B = 31 approximately 90, C = 91 approximately 150, D = 151 approximately 210, E = > or = 211) to observe the relation of ALA-D activities, FEP concentrations and ALA-D activities in group B (r = -0.706, p < 0.05). A significant positive correlation was obtained between Pb-B concentrations and FEP concentrations in groups A, B and D (A = r = 0.496, p < 0.01; B = r = 0.686, p < 0.01; D = r = 0.529, p < 0.05). These results indicate that FEP concentrations were good indicators of lead contamination.