The relation of childhood personality types, or configurations of personality traits, to adolescent development was examined. Three personality types were identified in an inverse factor analysis of California Child Q-Sort data on 128 Icelandic 7-year-olds: resilient, overcontrolled, and undercontrolled. Growth curve analyses demonstrated that in comparison to children of the other 2 types, children of the resilient personality type had higher levels of academic achievement and lower levels of concentration problems throughout adolescence; resilient children also developed sophisticated friendship reasoning and an internal locus of control more quickly. Children of the overcontrolled type were found to be more prone to social withdrawal and low levels of self-esteem during adolescence than children of the other 2 types. In contrast to the other 2 types, children classified as undercontrolled showed an increase in aggressive behavior in adolescence. Implications of the findings for research on personality development are discussed.