This study aimed to investigate the effect of chronic tinnitus on measures of listening effort and cognitive performance, as well as the relation between cognitive performance and the amount of listening effort obtained by those measures. Thirteen normal-hearing young adults with chronic tinnitus were matched with a control group. First, behavioral listening effort was measured using a dual-task paradigm in various favorable and unfavorable listening conditions. Furthermore, verbal working memory, processing speed, selective attention, and cognitive flexibility and inhibition were evaluated. A significant and nonsignificant trend toward more listening effort in the tinnitus group was, respectively, found for the quiet listening condition and the condition with a signal-to-noise ratio of +2 dB. No significant differences in cognitive performances were found between the groups, nor were there significant relationships between the cognitive factors and listening effort scores for either the control or tinnitus group. Listening effort was increased in the tinnitus group. Although no clear differences in cognitive performance could be found between the tinnitus group and their controls, a trend could be seen whereby selective attention deficits in the subjects with tinnitus may be an important factor that affects the amount of listening effort.