In 2 experiments we investigated the effects of withdrawal and stress on the affective correlates of urges to smoke. In both, habitual cigarette smokers were divided into continuing and withdrawing smoker groups. In the 1st study, 44 adults reported current mood, urge, and expectations over a 24-hr period. In the 2nd, a controlled laboratory study, urge, affect, and physiological data were obtained from continuing and withdrawing groups (N = 64) exposed to high- or low-stress conditions. Urges among withdrawing smokers were positively associated with negative affect and negatively associated with positive affect; continuing smokers reported urges that were directly associated with positive affect and unrelated to negative affect. Stress and withdrawal produced urge self-reports that were related to negative affect. Moreover, subjects who smoked after exposure to withdrawal and stress reported greater pleasure and arousal than did other subjects.