The relationship among asphalt, mortar and mixture performance was analyzed by grey correlation method by means of asphalt rheological test and hot mix freeze-thaw split test in this paper. The results show that the rheological properties of asphalt as well as asphalt mortar are closely related to HMA performance. Rheological index has a good advantage in explaining HMA pavement diseases. Asphalt stiffness, cohesion, yield stress, rutting coefficient, multiple stress creep and recovery have a high correlation with the strength of the mixture; meanwhile, softening point, normal stress, interface bonding ability of asphalt mortar and volume index of mixture have a high correlation with the water stability of the mixture. In the evaluation of asphalt and asphalt mortar, methods such as stress creep recovery, stress scanning (yield stress, normal stress) and interface bond test should be further proposed and popularized.