The highly sensitive ultra-violet (UV) photodiode was demonstrated on the organic-inorganic hybrid heterostructure of β-phase p-type polyfluorene (PFO)/n-type yttrium-doped zinc oxide nanorods (YZO-NRs). The device was fabricated through a simple fabrication technique of β-phase PFO coating onto YZO-NRs that had been directly grown on graphene by the hydrothermal synthesis method. Under UV illumination (λ = 365 nm), the device clearly showed excellent photoresponse characteristics (e.g., high quantum efficiency ~690%, high photodetectivity ~3.34 × 1012 cm·Hz1/2·W-1, and fast response time ~0.17 s). Furthermore, the ratio of the photo current-to-dark current exceeds 103 even under UV illumination with a small optical power density of 0.6 mW/cm2. We attribute such superb photoresponse characteristics to both Y incorporation into YZO-NRs and conformation of β-phase PFO. Namely, Y dopants could effectively reduce surface states at YZO-NRs, and β-phase PFO might increase the photocarrier conductivity in PFO. The results suggest that the β-phase p-PFO/n-YZO-NR hybrid heterostructure holds promise for high-performance UV photodetectors.