Regulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) remains poorly elucidated in humans, especially during exercise. In the present study we tested the role of adenosine in the regulation of ATBF adjacent to active and inactive thigh muscles during intermittent isometric knee-extension exercise (1 s contraction followed by 2 s rest with workloads of 50, 100, and 150 N) in six healthy young women. ATBF was measured using positron emission tomography (PET) without and with unspecific adenosine receptor inhibitor theophylline infused intravenously. Adipose regions were localized from fused PET and magnetic resonance images. Blood flow in subcutaneous adipose tissue adjacent to active muscle increased from rest (1.0 ± 0.3 ml·100 g(-1)·min(-1)) to exercise (P < 0.001) and along with increasing exercise intensity (50 N = 4.1 ± 1.4, 100 N = 5.4 ± 1.8, and 150 N = 6.9 ± 3.0 ml·100 g(-1)·min(-1), P = 0.03 for the increase). In contrast, ATBF adjacent to inactive muscle remained at resting levels with all intensities (∼1.0 ± 0.5 ml·100 g(-1)·min(-1)). During exercise theophylline prevented the increase in ATBF adjacent to active muscle especially during the highest exercise intensity (50 N = 4.3 ± 1.8 ml·100 g(-1)·min(-1), 100 N = 4.0 ± 1.5 ml·100 g(-1)·min(-1), and 150 N = 4.9 ± 1.8 ml·100 g(-1)·min(-1), P = 0.06 for an overall effect) but had no effect on blood flow adjacent to inactive muscle or adipose blood flow in resting contralateral leg. In conclusion, we report in the present study that 1) blood flow in subcutaneous adipose tissue of the leg is increased from rest to exercise in an exercise intensity-dependent manner, but only in the vicinity of working muscle, and 2) adenosine receptor antagonism attenuates this blood flow enhancement at the highest exercise intensities.