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Regulation of promoter occupancy during activation of cryptobiotic embryos from the crustacean Artemia franciscana.

Authors
Type
Published Article
Journal
The Journal of experimental biology
Publication Date
Volume
206
Issue
Pt 9
Pages
1565–1573
Identifiers
PMID: 12654895
Source
Medline

Abstract

Artemia franciscana embryos can suspend their development and metabolism at the gastrula stage to enter a state of cryptobiosis, forming cysts. Embryonic development and metabolism can be resumed under favorable environmental conditions to give rise to free-swimming larvae or nauplii. The mechanisms that mediate these processes are not completely known. Here, we report our studies of the mechanisms that regulate transcriptional activation upon exiting cryptobiosis. Regulatory regions of several A. franciscana gene promoters were identified. Functional analyses in mammalian cells allowed the identification of transcriptional activator regions in the Actin302 promoter and in promoter 2 of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase-encoding gene. These regions were shown to specifically bind protein factors from nuclear extracts of A. franciscana nauplii by means of electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Several protein-binding regions were also detected by DNase I protection analysis in the promoters of the genes encoding the alpha1 subunit of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, actin 302 and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase. Specific DNA-binding proteins in nauplius nuclear extracts were detected for all the promoter regions analyzed. These proteins were either not present in cyst nuclear extracts or were present in much smaller concentrations. Three of the five regions analyzed also bound proteins present in cyst nuclear extracts. These data indicate that transcriptional activation upon exiting cryptobiosis in A. franciscana involves the expression/activation of DNA-binding transcription factors that are not present in cyst nuclei

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