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Regulation of epigenetic traits of the glutathione S-transferase P1 gene: from detoxification toward cancer prevention and diagnosis

Authors
Type
Published Article
Journal
Frontiers in Pharmacology
Publisher
Frontiers Media SA
Publication Date
Jul 15, 2014
Volume
5
Issue
1
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2014.00170
Source
LBMCC
License
Green

Abstract

Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are phase II drug detoxifying enzymes that play an essential role in the maintenance of cell integrity and protection against DNA damage by catalyzing the conjugation of glutathione to a wide variety of exo- and endogenous electrophilic substrates. Glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1), the gene encoding the pi-class GST, is frequently inactivated by acquired somatic CpG island promoter hypermethylation in multiple cancer subtypes including prostate, breast, liver, and blood cancers. Epigenetically mediated GSTP1 silencing is associated with enhanced cancer susceptibility by decreasing its “caretaker” gene function, which tends to promote neoplastic transformation allowing cells to acquire additional alterations. Thus, this epigenetic alteration is now considered as a cancer biomarker but could as well play a driving role in multistep cancer development, especially well documented in prostate cancer development. The present review discusses applications of epigenetic alterations affecting GSTP1 in cancer medicine used alone or in combination with other biomarkers for cancer detection and diagnosis as well as for future targeted preventive and therapeutic interventions including by dietary agents.

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