To review the available literature regarding a possible relationship between vitamin D and bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT), and to identify future avenues of research that warrant attention. Results from in vivo animal and human studies all support the hypothesis that vitamin D can suppress BMAT expansion. This is achieved by antagonizing adipogenesis in bone marrow stromal cells, through inhibition of PPARγ2 activity and stimulation of pro-osteogenic Wnt signalling. However, our understanding of the functions of BMAT is still evolving, and studies on the role of vitamin D in modulating BMAT function are lacking. In addition, many diseases and chronic conditions are associated with low vitamin D status and low bone mineral density (BMD), but BMAT expansion has not been studied in these patient populations. Vitamin D suppresses BMAT expansion, but its role in modulating BMAT function is poorly understood.