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Regulation and function of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis in plants and algae.

Authors
  • Brzezowski, Pawel
  • Richter, Andreas S
  • Grimm, Bernhard
Type
Published Article
Journal
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Sep 01, 2015
Volume
1847
Issue
9
Pages
968–985
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.bbabio.2015.05.007
PMID: 25979235
Source
Medline
Keywords
License
Unknown

Abstract

Tetrapyrroles are macrocyclic molecules with various structural variants and multiple functions in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. Present knowledge about the metabolism of tetrapyrroles reflects the complex evolution of the pathway in different kingdoms of organisms, the complexity of structural and enzymatic variations of enzymatic steps, as well as a wide range of regulatory mechanisms, which ensure adequate synthesis of tetrapyrrole end-products at any time of development and environmental condition. This review intends to highlight new findings of research on tetrapyrrole biosynthesis in plants and algae. In the course of the heme and chlorophyll synthesis in these photosynthetic organisms, glutamate, one of the central and abundant metabolites, is converted into highly photoreactive tetrapyrrole intermediates. Thereby, several mechanisms of posttranslational control are thought to be essential for a tight regulation of each enzymatic step. Finally, we wish to discuss the potential role of tetrapyrroles in retrograde signaling and point out perspectives of the formation of macromolecular protein complexes in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis as an efficient mechanism to ensure a fine-tuned metabolic flow in the pathway. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chloroplast Biogenesis.

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