In Thermomonospora fusca YX, endocellulase synthesis varies over a 100-fold range depending on the carbon source used. This study shows that the variation is caused by two regulatory mechanisms: an induction mechanism that increases the rate of endocellulase synthesis about 20-fold and a growth rate-dependent repression mechanism that changes the rate of synthesis over a 6-fold range in both induced and noninduced cells. In T. fusca, endocellulase synthesis can be induced by cellulose, cellobiose, or cellodextrin. Cellulase is involved in inducer generation from cellulose. Growth rate-dependent repression can be reversed by limiting cultures for carbon, nitrogen, or, to a lesser extent, phosphorus. Further evidence for two separate regulatory mechanisms is provided by the isolation of mutants (CC-1 and CC-2) whose endocellulases are synthesized constitutively but are still sensitive to growth rate-dependent repression. These conclusions about total endocellulase synthesis were extended to the individual endocellulases by showing that three T. fusca endocellulases are coordinately regulated.