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Regulation of anthocyanin metabolism in grape : Effect of light on teinturier cultivars

  • Guan, Le
Publication Date
Dec 18, 2014
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Anthocyanins are an important component of red fruit quality, especially for grape berries, and for the color of the wines made from these berries. Anthocyanin biosynthesis is determined by genetic factors and affected by environmental factors, especially sunlight. For most grape cultivars, the berry skin is the main or only tissue accumulating anthocyanins. The present work investigates the effects of light and grape genotype on anthocyanin biosynthesis. We used teinturier grape cultivars (also called dyers, which synthesize anthocyanins in both skin and pulp) and its hybrid population as plant materials. Nineteen monoglucoside anthocyanins were identified in seven colored tissues of the teinturier cultivar Yan-73 (V. vinifera). Anthocyanin composition and concentration varied among grape organs and with developmental stage. Skin anthocyanins were mainly composed of malvidin derivatives, while peonidin derivatives were the most abundant anthocyanins in the pulp. Both malvidin and peonidin derivatives were predominant in rachis, berry pedicels, leaf lamina, vein and petioles, and living bark at the base of the shoot. The concentration of anthocyanins in berry skin, pulp, rachis and pedicels rapidly increased starting from veraison on, or one week after veraison. Anthocyanin concentrations were high in young and senescing leaf lamina and low in expanding and mature lamina. They did not vary much throughout the growing season in the leaf veins and petiole tissues, or in the bark. Grape cultivars could be distinguished by their response to sunlight exclusion treatments imposed from fruit set to maturity by surrounding the clusters with opaque boxes. The red-skinned non-teinturier cultivar Gamay could barely accumulate anthocyanins in berry skin under sunlight exclusion. In contrast, teinturier cultivars, Yan-73 and Gamay Fréaux (teinturier mutant of Gamay) accumulated anthocyanins in both skin and pulp and showed dark color even under sunlight exclusion...

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