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Regulating Intracellular Antiviral Defense and Permissiveness to Hepatitis C Virus RNA Replication through a Cellular RNA Helicase, RIG-I†

Authors
  • Rhea Sumpter
  • Yueh-Ming Loo
  • Eileen Foy
  • Kui Li
  • Mitsutoshi Yoneyama
  • Takashi Fujita
  • Stanley M. Lemon
  • Michael Gale
Publisher
American Society for Microbiology
Publication Date
Mar 01, 2005
Source
PMC
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Biology
  • Medicine
License
Unknown

Abstract

Virus-responsive signaling pathways that induce alpha/beta interferon production and engage intracellular immune defenses influence the outcome of many viral infections. The processes that trigger these defenses and their effect upon host permissiveness for specific viral pathogens are not well understood. We show that structured hepatitis C virus (HCV) genomic RNA activates interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), thereby inducing interferon in cultured cells. This response is absent in cells selected for permissiveness for HCV RNA replication. Studies including genetic complementation revealed that permissiveness is due to mutational inactivation of RIG-I, an interferon-inducible cellular DExD/H box RNA helicase. Its helicase domain binds HCV RNA and transduces the activation signal for IRF3 by its caspase recruiting domain homolog. RIG-I is thus a pathogen receptor that regulates cellular permissiveness to HCV replication and, as an interferon-responsive gene, may play a key role in interferon-based therapies for the treatment of HCV infection.

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