We have extended the dual isotope probe technique of Basran et al. for the measurement of pulmonary microvascular permeability (PMVP) to include gamma camera data acquisition and functional imaging of the plasma protein accumulation index (PPA) throughout the lung fields. The study group consisted of 11 patients with possible increased PMVP following the drainage of a pleural effusion or the evacuation of air from a pneumothorax, and 11 control patients. The PPA was calculated (1) for probe data, (2) on a pixel by pixel basis for the camera data, the results being stored in a functional image and (3) for four pixel x four pixel regions of interest positioned over the lung fields using the functional image and raw data as a guide. Functional images of the control group showed uniformly low PPAs throughout the lung fields. Nine of the eleven patients in the effusion/pneumothorax group showed discrete areas of increased PPA on the functional images. In the effusion/pneumothorax group, the re-expanded lung four pixel x four pixel ROI PPA values were significantly higher than the nonexpanded lung ROI values (p less than 0.001). The re-expanded lung ROI values were also significantly higher than the mean of the left and right lung ROIs in the control group (p less than 0.01). Five of the eleven patients in the effusion/pneumothorax group had probe PPAs that differed significantly from zero. We believe that probe positioning problems in the absence of sufficient clinical guidelines were largely responsible for there being no overall significant difference in the probe PPAs between the two study groups.