Extreme events such as rainstorms and floods are likely to increase in frequency due to the influence of global warming, which is expected to put considerable pressure on water resources. This paper presents a regional frequency analysis of precipitation extremes and its spatio-temporal pattern characteristics based on well-known index-flood L-moments methods and the application of advanced statistical tests and spatial analysis techniques. The results indicate the following conclusions. First, during the period between 1969 and 2015, the annual precipitation extremes at Fengjie station show a decreasing trend, but the Wuhan station shows an increasing trend, and the other 24 stations have no significant trend at a 5% confidence level. Secondly, the Hanjiang River Basin can be categorized into three homogenous regions by hierarchical clustering analysis with the consideration of topography and mean precipitation in these areas. The GEV, GNO, GPA and P III distributions fit better for most of the basin and MARE values range from 3.19% to 6.41% demonstrating that the best-fit distributions for each homogenous region is adequate in predicting the quantiles estimates. Thirdly, quantile estimates are reliable enough when the return period is less than 100 years, however estimates for a higher return period (e.g., 1000 years) become unreliable. Further, the uncertainty of quantiles estimations is growing with the growing return periods and the estimates based on R95P series have a smaller uncertainty to describe the extreme precipitation in the Hanjiang river basin (HJRB). Furthermore, In the HJRB, most of the extreme precipitation events (more than 90%) occur during the rainy season between May and October, and more than 30% of these extreme events concentrate in July, which is mainly impacted by the sub-tropical monsoon climate. Finally, precipitation extremes are mainly concentrated in the areas of Du River, South River and Daba Mountain in region I and Tianmen, Wuhan and Zhongxiang stations in region III, located in the upstream of Danjiangkou Reservoir and Jianghan Plain respectively. There areas provide sufficient climate conditions (e.g., humidity and precipitation) responsible for the occurring floods and will increase the risk of natural hazards to these areas.