It is well known that antrum-predominantgastritis and pan-gastritis occurs in the patients withHelicobacter pylori-positive duodenal ulcer (DU) andgastric ulcer (GU), respectively. However, the role of chemokines in the pathogenesis of thesepathologies is unclear. We examined the regionaldifferences in mucosal chemokine production in patientswith DU and GU. The production of interleukin-8 (IL-8), growth-related gene (GRO) α, andmacrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α wasgreater in the antrum than in the corpus in DU patients.In the patients with GU, monocyte chemoattractantprotein (MCP)-1 levels in the mucosa adjacent to ulcer weregreater than those away for the ulcer in the corpus. Thereduction in chemokine production occurring inassociation with the eradication of H. pylori differed between DU and GU patients in the antrum (IL-8,P = 0.0394; GROα, P = 0.0149; MIP-1α, P =0.0246; MCP-1, P = 0.0087). The data imply a differentpathogenesis may exist for the gastritis present in patients with DU and GU occurring in H.pylori-positive individuals.