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Refractive error study in children: sampling and measurement methods for a multi-country survey

Authors
  • Negrel, A.Dominique
  • Maul, Eugenio
  • Pokharel, Gopal P.
  • Zhao, Jialiang
  • Ellwein, Leon B.
Type
Published Article
Journal
American Journal of Ophthalmology
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2000
Accepted Date
Nov 05, 1999
Volume
129
Issue
4
Pages
421–426
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/S0002-9394(99)00455-9
Source
Elsevier
License
Unknown

Abstract

PURPOSE: The Refractive Error Study in Children was designed to assess the prevalence of refractive error and vision impairment in children of different ethnic origins and cultural settings. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional samples of children 5 to 15 years of age were obtained through cluster sampling. Presenting, uncorrected, and best-corrected visual acuity, along with refractive error under cycloplegia, were the main outcome measures. Amblyopia and other causes of uncorrectable vision impairment were determined. RESULTS: Study design and sample size calculations, survey enumeration and ophthalmic examination methods, quality assurance monitoring, and data analyses and statistical methods are described. CONCLUSIONS: The study design, sample size, and measurement methods ensure that the prevalence of age-specific and sex-specific refractive error can be estimated with reasonable accuracy in the target populations. With commonality of methods, a comparison of findings between studies in different ethic origins and cultural settings is possible.

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