Several investigations have suggested pineal gland abnormalities in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The pineal volume on brain magnetic resonance imaging scans was calculated in 15 male schizophrenic inpatients and in 16 matched control subjects. The statistical comparison found a significant difference of pineal gland volume between schizophrenics and controls (P = 0.022), with a smaller pineal volume in the schizophrenics. These results do not confirm the previous data of Schizophrenia Res. 14 (1995) 253, showing no significant pineal volumetric differences between schizophrenics and normal controls. Since the present study is based on a smaller but more homogeneous sample of patients, this could reduce the heterogeneity features of the schizophrenic disease. No correlation was found between pineal volume and clinical and psychopathological features of the schizophrenic subjects. Volume reduction in schizophrenia could be at least partially included in the wider brain developmental abnormalities of the illness or in the late effects of previous neuroleptic treatments.