Paradiplozoon hemiculteri (Ling, 1973), a member of the Diplozoidae, parasitizes the gills of Asian fish. Not only is the type material unavailable for this species, the original description was poor and somewhat conflicting, and adequate molecular data were not available. What is more, the available morphological and molecular data are inconsistent and fluctuate significantly. Here, we present a redescription of P. hemiculteri based on morphological and molecular data from new isolates collected from the type host, the sharpbelly Hemiculter leucisculus (Basilewsky, 1855), captured at the neotype locality (Shaoguan, Guangdong Province, southern China); a neotype for P. hemiculteri was designated from this collection. The length and width of the body, buccal suckers, pharynx, attachment clamps, sickle and the central hook handle were all measured and the shape of the anterior and posterior part of the median plate and anterior and posterior joining sclerites accurately documented. Phylogenetic analyses based on the sequences of the second rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) indicated that all new samples clustered together and differed clearly from sequences attributed to P. hemiculteri, which are deposited in GenBank. Our results confirm that P. hemiculteri is the only diplozoid that has demonstrably been found on the gills of H. leucisculus to date.