Good quality care of low birthweight infants could reduce neonatal mortality in low-income countries, but the technologies used in rich countries are inappropriate. Kangaroo Mother Care does not need expensive and sophisticated equipment, and for its simplicity it can be applied almost everywhere, including peripheral maternity units of very low-income countries. Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) can also contribute to the humanization of neonatal care and to better bonding between mother and baby in both poor and rich countries. A group of health professionals with experience in KMC met in a workshop to discuss its effectiveness, safety, applicability and acceptability in different settings: from first and second level maternity units in settings with very limited resources, to second and third level units in settings with limited resources, to second and third level maternity and neonatal care units in settings with ample resources and infant mortality rates <15/1000. The paper summarizes the recommendations of this group of health professionals for the implementation of KMC in these various settings, together with suggested research priorities.