Posttransplant infection associated with host immune deficiency is the major cause of nonrelapse mortality of human bone marrow transplant recipients. In a new murine model of posttransplant infection, allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients were infected with herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) via intraperitoneal inoculation 12 weeks after transplantation. Allogeneic transplant recipients with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) had significantly increased mortality from HSV-1 encephalitis, with deficiencies of both specific anti-HSV-1 antibody and total serum IgG2a. GVHD mice displayed a Th2 cytokine profile (increased interleukin-4 [IL-4] and decreased interferon-gamma) and decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS) responses, suggesting that both T-cell and B-cell defects contributed to the impaired production of antibody. Because passive transfer of hyperimmune serum protected mice from HSV-1 infection, we hypothesized that CD40 ligand (CD40L), which induces B-cell maturation, would protect mice from HSV-1 infection. CD40L-treated GVHD mice showed elevated IgG2a levels and increased survival compared with vehicle-treated transplant recipients.