To study the function and potential application of nkx2.5, a critical gene for heart development, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus overexpressing nkx2.5 gene (Ad-Nkx2.5) with the AdEasy system. To evaluate the effect and mechanism of Ad-Nkx2.5 against oxidative injury, the H9c2 myocardial cells were infected with the recombinant adenoviruses Ad-Nkx2.5 or Ad-EGFP, and subsequently exposed to H2O2 to induce apoptosis. The anti-apoptotic potential of Ad-Nkx2.5 was validated by MTT assay for cell viability, Hoechst33342 staining for cellular morphology, and immunoblotting for caspase-3 activity. Ad-Nkx2.5 infection led to an increased survival rate of H9c2 cells and decreased the amount of caspase-3 in an active form. Additionally, overexpression of Nkx2.5 inhibited the release of cytochrome C from the mitochondria into the cytosol. Mechanismic studies showed that Nkx2.5 upregulated bcl-2 gene expression and significantly repressed H2O2-induced expression of bax detected by Real-time PCR. Additionally, H2O2 treatment did not affect the nuclear localization of Nkx2.5. These findings indicate that adenovirus-mediated nkx2.5 gene transfer exerted a protective effect on H9c2 cells against H2O2-induced apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway, and the Nkx2.5-mediated expression modulation of apoptosis-associated genes could be involved in this event.