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Recently highlighted nutraceuticals for preventive management of osteoarthritis.

Authors
  • Ravalli, Silvia1
  • Szychlinska, Marta Anna1
  • Leonardi, Rosalia Maria2
  • Musumeci, Giuseppe3
  • 1 Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, Human Anatomy and Histology Section, School of Medicine, University of Catania, Catania 95123, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 2 Department of Orthodontics, Policlinico Universitario "Vittorio Emanuele", University of Catania, Catania 95124, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 3 Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, Human Anatomy and Histology Section, School of Medicine, University of Catania, Catania 95123, Italy. [email protected] , (Italy)
Type
Published Article
Journal
World Journal of Orthopedics
Publisher
Baishideng Publishing Group Co (World Journal of Orthopedics)
Publication Date
Nov 18, 2018
Volume
9
Issue
11
Pages
255–261
Identifiers
DOI: 10.5312/wjo.v9.i11.255
PMID: 30479972
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative disease of articular cartilage with limited treatment options. This reality encourages clinicians to suggest preventive measures to delay and contain the outbreak of the pathological conditions. Articular cartilage and synovium suffering from OA are characterised by an inflammatory state and by significant oxidative stress, responsible for pain, swelling and loss of mobility in the advanced stages. This review will focus on the ability of olive oil to exert positive effects on the entire joint to reduce pro-inflammatory cytokine release and increase lubricin synthesis, olive leaf extract, since it maintains lubrication by stimulating high molecular weight hyaluronan synthesis in synovial cells, curcumin, which delays the start of pathological cartilage breakdown, sanguinarine, which downregulates catabolic proteases, vitamin D for its capacity to influence the oxidative and pro-inflammatory environment, and carnosic acid as an inducer of heme oxygenase-1, which helps preserve cartilage degeneration. These molecules, considered as natural dietary supplements, appear like a cutting-edge answer to this tough health problem, playing a major role in controlling homeostatic balance loss and slowing down the pathology progression. Natural or food-derived molecules that are able to exert potential therapeutic effects are known as "nutraceutical", resulting from the combination of the words "nutrition" and "pharmaceutical". These compounds have gained popularity due to their easy availability, which represents a huge advantage for food and pharmaceutical industries. In addition, the chronic nature of OA implies the use of pharmacological compounds with proven long-term safety, especially because current treatments like nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics improve pain relief but have no effect on degenerative progression and can also cause serious side effects.

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