This review presents recent advances in the non-enzymatic electrochemical detection and quantification of pesticides, focusing on the use of nanomaterial-based electrode modifiers and their corresponding analytical response. The use of bare glassy carbon electrodes, carbon paste electrodes, screen-printed electrodes, and other electrodes in this research area is presented. The sensors were modified with single nanomaterials, a binary composite, or triple and multiple nanocomposites applied to the electrodes’ surfaces using various application techniques. Regardless of the type of electrode used and the class of pesticides analysed, carbon-based nanomaterials, metal, and metal oxide nanoparticles are investigated mainly for electrochemical analysis because they have a high surface-to-volume ratio and, thus, a large effective area, high conductivity, and (electro)-chemical stability. This work demonstrates the progress made in recent years in the non-enzymatic electrochemical analysis of pesticides. The need for simultaneous detection of multiple pesticides with high sensitivity, low limit of detection, high precision, and high accuracy remains a challenge in analytical chemistry.