Researchers who had documented a small decrease in fertility between 1975 and 1983 in Bangladesh analyzed 1985-1991 data to determine whether fertility decline continued after 1983. Even though the traditional low age of marriage (14 years) persisted, fertility decline accelerated in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Most of this decline was due to a decrease in marital fertility among older women. The crude birth rates among 35-39 year olds and 40-44 year olds decreased between 1983 and 1991 from 124 to 85/1000, respectively. The total fertility rate fell from 5 to 4.1. The total marital fertility rate fell from about 10.2% (5.9-5.3). The mean number of children ever born fell around 16.3% (4.3 -3.7). The percent of currently pregnant women decreased from 11.7 to 10.6%. Contraceptive use increased sharply. These changes in contraceptive use and fertility occurred under a persistent low level of socioeconomic circumstances. Rising population growth with general mortality decline (i.e., population pressure), a massive national level comprehensive family planning program, recent expansion of an integrated health and family planning program providing home visits and services at the community level, and weak pronatalist beliefs and attitudes among Muslims effected the increase in contraceptive use and the decrease in fertility. In 1983, neither education nor urban residence had a significant effect on births during the 1 year before the survey. This modest effect positive. By 1991, education and urban residence had a significant negative effect on these births. Contraceptive use and living in a region other than Chittagong had a significant negative on these births. The largest decreases in total marital fertility occurred to women with secondary education (17.4% decline), urban dwellers (20%), and women living in Khulna region (27.4%).