Adenosine plays an important role in physiology of several organs. Its turnover inside and outside of the cell is controlled by several enzymes and transport processes. The action of extracellular adenosine is mediated via at least four receptors named A(1), A(2A), A(2B), and A(3). Recent studies have reported that adenosine is a significant mediator of regulatory lymphocyte function. Numerous data indicates that adenosine affects T lymphocyte activation, proliferation and lymphocyte-mediated cytolysis. Impaired lymphocyte functioning and enhanced susceptibility to infections is a common feature of human diabetes. This review collects data bringing us closer to understanding the disturbances in lymphocytes adenosine homeostasis in diabetes. Adenosine receptors and nucleoside transporters are targets for potential drugs in many pathophysiological situations. Therefore, action of adenosine on lymphocyte function in diabetes may be important target for modulation of immune responses and understanding of mechanisms leading to several pathologies of immune cells observed in diabetes.