Work in mesoporous silica-based materials began in the early 1990s with work by Mobil. These materials had pore sizes from 20-500 A and surface areas of up to 1500 m(2) g(-1) and were synthesized by a novel liquid crystal templating approach. Researchers subsequently extended this strategy to the synthesis of mesoporous transition metal oxides, a class of materials useful in catalysis, electronic, and magnetic applications because of variable oxidation states, and populated d-bands-features not found in silicates. These materials are already showing promise in electronic and optical applications hinging on the semiconducting properties of transition metal oxides and their potential to act as electron acceptors, an important feature in the design of cathodic materials. This is the first general review of non-silicate mesoporous materials and will focus on recent advances in this area, emphasizing materials possessing unique electronic, magnetic, or optical properties. Also covered are advances in the synthesis and applications of mesostructured sulfides as well as a new class of template-synthesized platinum-based materials that show promise in heterogeneous catalysis.