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Recent Advances in Non-Enzymatic Glucose Sensors Based on Metal and Metal Oxide Nanostructures for Diabetes Management- A Review

Authors
  • Naikoo, Gowhar A.
  • Salim, Hiba
  • Hassan, Israr U.
  • Awan, Tasbiha
  • Arshad, Fareeha
  • Pedram, Mona Z.
  • Ahmed, Waqar
  • Qurashi, Ahsanulhaq
Type
Published Article
Journal
Frontiers in Chemistry
Publisher
Frontiers Media S.A.
Publication Date
Sep 22, 2021
Volume
9
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3389/fchem.2021.748957
Source
Frontiers
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Chemistry
  • Review
License
Green

Abstract

There is an undeniable growing number of diabetes cases worldwide that have received widespread global attention by many pharmaceutical and clinical industries to develop better functioning glucose sensing devices. This has called for an unprecedented demand to develop highly efficient, stable, selective, and sensitive non-enzymatic glucose sensors (NEGS). Interestingly, many novel materials have shown the promising potential of directly detecting glucose in the blood and fluids. This review exclusively encompasses the electrochemical detection of glucose and its mechanism based on various metal-based materials such as cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), titanium (Ti), iridium (Ir), and rhodium (Rh). Multiple aspects of these metals and their oxides were explored vis-à-vis their performance in glucose detection. The direct glucose oxidation via metallic redox centres is explained by the chemisorption model and the incipient hydrous oxide/adatom mediator (IHOAM) model. The glucose electrooxidation reactions on the electrode surface were elucidated by equations. Furthermore, it was explored that an effective detection of glucose depends on the aspect ratio, surface morphology, active sites, structures, and catalytic activity of nanomaterials, which plays an indispensable role in designing efficient NEGS. The challenges and possible solutions for advancing NEGS have been summarized.

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