Sepsis and septic shock are life-threating conditions, which form a continuum of the body's response to overwhelming infection. The current treatment consists of fluid and metabolic resuscitation, hemodynamic and end-organ support, and timely initiation of antibiotics. However, these measures may be ineffective and the sepsis-related mortality toll remains substantial; therefore, an urgent need exists for new therapies. Recently, several nanoparticle (NP) systems have shown excellent protective effects against sepsis in preclinical models, suggesting a potential utility in the management of sepsis and septic shock. These NPs serve as antibacterial agents, provide platforms to immobilize endotoxin adsorbents, interact with inflammatory cells to restore homeostasis and detect biomarkers of sepsis for timely diagnosis. This review discusses the recent developments in NP-based approaches for the treatment of sepsis.