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Recent advances in mechanisms of food allergy and anaphylaxis

Authors
  • Tomar, Sunil1
  • Hogan, Simon P1
  • 1 1. Mary H. Weiser Food Allergy Center, Department of Pathology, University of Michigan 4051-BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109-2200, USA
Type
Published Article
Journal
F1000Research
Publisher
"F1000 Research, Ltd."
Publication Date
Jul 31, 2020
Volume
9
Identifiers
DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.25638.1
PMID: 32789004
PMCID: PMC7401090
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
License
Unknown

Abstract

Food allergens are innocuous proteins that promote tolerogenic adaptive immune responses in healthy individuals yet in other individuals induce an allergic adaptive immune response characterized by the presence of antigen-specific immunoglobulin E and type-2 immune cells. The cellular and molecular processes that determine a tolerogenic versus non-tolerogenic immune response to dietary antigens are not fully elucidated. Recently, there have been advances in the identification of roles for microbial communities and anatomical sites of dietary antigen exposure and presentation that have provided new insights into the key regulatory steps in the tolerogenic versus non-tolerogenic decision-making processes. Herein, we will review and discuss recent findings in cellular and molecular processes underlying food sensitization and tolerance, immunological processes underlying severity of food-induced anaphylaxis, and insights obtained from immunotherapy trials.

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