Metabolomics is the study of small molecules called metabolites in biological samples. Application of metabolomics to nutrition research has expanded in recent years, with emerging literature supporting multiple applications. Key examples include applications of metabolomics in the identification and development of objective biomarkers of dietary intake, in developing personalized nutrition strategies, and in large-scale epidemiology studies to understand the link between diet and health. In this review, we provide an overview of the current applications and identify key challenges that need to be addressed for the further development of the field. Successful development of metabolomics for nutrition research has the potential to improve dietary assessment, help deliver personalized nutrition, and enhance our understanding of the link between diet and health.