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Realizing ecosystem services: wetland hydrologic function along a gradient of ecosystem condition.

Authors
  • McLaughlin, Daniel L
  • Cohen, Matthew J
Type
Published Article
Journal
Ecological Applications
Publisher
Wiley (John Wiley & Sons)
Publication Date
Oct 01, 2013
Volume
23
Issue
7
Pages
1619–1631
Identifiers
PMID: 24261044
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

Wetlands provide numerous ecosystem services, from habitat provision to pollutant removal, floodwater storage, and microclimate regulation. Delivery of particular services relies on specific ecological functions, and thus to varying degree on wetland ecological condition, commonly quantified as departure from minimally impacted reference sites. Condition assessments are widely adopted as regulatory indicators of ecosystem function, and for some services (e.g., habitat) links between condition and function are often direct. For others, however, links are more tenuous, and using condition alone to enumerate ecosystem value (e.g., for compensatory mitigation) may underestimate important services. Hydrologic function affects many services cited in support of wetland protection both directly (floodwater retention, microclimate regulation) and indirectly (biogeochemical cycling, pollutant removal). We investigated links between condition and hydrologic function to test the hypothesis, embedded in regulatory assessment of wetland value, that condition predicts function. Condition was assessed using rapid and intensive approaches, including Florida's official wetland assessment tool, in 11 isolated forested wetlands in north Florida (USA) spanning a land use intensity gradient. Hydrologic function was assessed using hydrologic regime (mean, variance, and rates of change of water depth), and measurements of groundwater exchange and evapotranspiration (ET). Despite a wide range in condition, no systematic variation in hydrologic regime was observed; indeed reference sites spanned the full range of variation. In contrast, ET was affected by land use, with higher rates in intensive (agriculture and urban) landscapes in response to higher leaf area. ET determines latent heat exchange, which regulates microclimate, a valuable service in urban heat islands. Higher ET also indicates higher productivity and thus carbon cycling. Groundwater exchange regularly reversed flow direction at all sites in response to rainfall. This buffering effect on regional aquifer levels, an underappreciated service of isolated wetlands, was provided regardless of condition. Intensive landscapes may benefit most from the hydrologic services that wetlands provide because that is where certain services (floodwater storage, microclimate regulation) are realized. While the portfolio of wetland services clearly changes with disturbance, our results support a revised approach to wetland valuation that recognizes the services that accrue from sustained or enhanced functions in these "working wetlands."

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