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Real-time reconstruction of sensitivity encoded radial magnetic resonance imaging using a graphics processing unit.

Authors
  • Sørensen, Thomas Sangild
  • Atkinson, David
  • Schaeffter, Tobias
  • Hansen, Michael Schacht
Type
Published Article
Journal
IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publisher
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Publication Date
Dec 01, 2009
Volume
28
Issue
12
Pages
1974–1985
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1109/TMI.2009.2027118
PMID: 19628452
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

A barrier to the adoption of non-Cartesian parallel magnetic resonance imaging for real-time applications has been the times required for the image reconstructions. These times have exceeded the underlying acquisition time thus preventing real-time display of the acquired images. We present a reconstruction algorithm for commodity graphics hardware (GPUs) to enable real time reconstruction of sensitivity encoded radial imaging (radial SENSE). We demonstrate that a radial profile order based on the golden ratio facilitates reconstruction from an arbitrary number of profiles. This allows the temporal resolution to be adjusted on the fly. A user adaptable regularization term is also included and, particularly for highly undersampled data, used to interactively improve the reconstruction quality. Each reconstruction is fully self-contained from the profile stream, i.e., the required coil sensitivity profiles, sampling density compensation weights, regularization terms, and noise estimates are computed in real-time from the acquisition data itself. The reconstruction implementation is verified using a steady state free precession (SSFP) pulse sequence and quantitatively evaluated. Three applications are demonstrated; real-time imaging with real-time SENSE 1) or k- t SENSE 2) reconstructions, and 3) offline reconstruction with interactive adjustment of reconstruction settings.

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