The objective of this study was to determine the reliability of the real-time PCR assay for determining the group B Streptococcus (GBS) status of women in labor. In this prospective study we compared the results of culture and PCR testing of vaginal and rectal samples collected by nursing staff when women were in labor. Patients' charts were also reviewed to obtain relevant information about pregnancy risk factors. Our results demonstrated a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of 90.5%, 96.1%, 86.4%, and 97.4%, respectively, for rapid PCR. Of the 196 women evaluated, 29 (14.8%) presented with unknown GBS status, 11 (37.9%) of whom received unnecessary intrapartum antibiotics. The rapid real-time PCR test was robust and was able to reliably detect the presence of GBS in women in labor within 1 h of specimen submission to the laboratory. We recommend that the rapid PCR test be targeted to women who present in labor with unknown GBS status. In cases where the laboratory does not offer 24-h availability of testing, sample collection followed by PCR testing the next morning is still valuable and provides reliable results 24 to 48 h faster than culture and will aid appropriate decision-making regarding continuing or stopping antibiotics for neonates of women with unknown GBS status.