Curcuma wenyujin Y.H. (CW), a variety of Curumae Rhizoma, which documented in China Pharmacopeia, has long been used as plant medicine for its traditional effect on promoting Qi, activating blood stagnation and expelling blood stasis. Nowadays, it is often used in clinic for extraordinary effect on liver diseases. It is worthy to be noted that CW processed with vinegar has been applied in clinic for 1500 years which started in the northern and southern dynasties. Liver fibrosis is a worldwide clinical issue. It is worth developing a multi-target and multicellular approach which is high efficiency and low side effects for the treatment of hepatic fibrosis. The anti-hepatic fibrosis molecular mechanisms of CW and vinegar Curcuma wenyujin (VCW) need to be explored and elucidated. Furthermore, the study aimed to discuss the efficiency and mechanism differences between CW and VCW in hepatic fibrosis. Biochemical assays and histopathology were adopted to evaluate the anti-hepatic fibrosis effect of CW and VCW. The TGF-β/Smad signaling involving TGF-β1, TGF-βRⅠ, TGF-βRⅡ and Smad2, Smad3, Smad7 in fibrosis is examined, which is a critical step towards the evaluation of anti-hepatic fibrosis agents. Meanwhile, the MMP/TIMP balance is a potential therapy target by modulating extracellular matrix, which is also examined. Both CW and VCW inhibit the activation and proliferation of hepatic stellate cells and induce apoptosis via blocking TGF-β/Smad signaling pathways. Additionally, the level of MMP-2/TIMP-1 regulated significantly, which suggest CW and VCW participate in the degradation process, and maintain the formation and production of extracellular matrix. Raw and vinegar processed Curcuma wenyujin regulates hepatic fibrosis via bloking TGF-β/Smad signaling pathways and up-regulation of MMP-2/TIMP-1 ratio. And VCW has more exhibition than CW. Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V.