Introduction Optimal antithrombotic strategy following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is still unknown. We hypothesised that the direct factor Xa inhibitor edoxaban can potentially prevent subclinical leaflet thrombosis and cerebral embolisation compared with conventional dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in patients undergoing TAVR. Methods and analysis The ADAPT-TAVR trial is an international, multicentre, randomised, open-label, superiority trial comparing edoxaban-based strategy and DAPT strategy in patients without an indication for oral anticoagulation who underwent successful TAVR. A total of 220 patients are randomised (1:1 ratio), 1–7 days after successful TAVR, to receive either edoxaban (60 mg daily or 30 mg daily if patients had dose-reduction criteria) or DAPT using aspirin (100 mg daily) plus clopidogrel (75 mg daily) for 6 months. The primary endpoint was an incidence of leaflet thrombosis on four-dimensional, volume-rendered cardiac CT imaging at 6 months post-TAVR. The key secondary endpoints were the number of new lesions and new lesion volume on brain diffusion-weighted MRI and the changes in neurological and neurocognitive function assessment between immediate post-TAVR and 6 months of study drug administration. Detailed clinical information on thromboembolic and bleeding events were also assessed. Ethics and dissemination Ethic approval has been obtained from the Ethics Committee/Institutional Review Board of Asan Medical Center (approval number: 2017–1317) and this trial is also approved by National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation of Republic of Korea (approval number: 31511). Results of this study will be disseminated in scientific publication in reputed journals. Trial registration number NCT03284827 .