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Rational aspect ratio and suitable antibody coverage of gold nanorod for ultra-sensitive detection of a cancer biomarker.

Authors
Type
Published Article
Journal
Lab on a Chip
1473-0189
Publisher
The Royal Society of Chemistry
Publication Date
Volume
12
Issue
6
Pages
1102–1109
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1039/c2lc20588b
PMID: 22298159
Source
Medline

Abstract

We report a simple, ultra-sensitive, and straightforward method for non-labeling detection of a cancer biomarker, using Rayleigh light scattering spectroscopy of the individual nanosensor based on antibody-antigen recognition and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) λ(max) shifts. By experimentally measuring the refractive index sensitivity of Au nanorods, the Au nanorod with an aspect ratio of ~3.5 was proven optimal for the LSPR sensing. To reduce the steric hindrance effect as well as to immobilize a large amount of ligand on the nanoparticle surface, various mixtures containing different molar ratios of HS(CH(2))(11)(OCH(2)CH(2))(6)OCH(2)COOH and HS(CH(2))(11)(OCH(2)CH(2))(3)OH were applied to form different self-assembled monolayer surfaces. The results showed that the best molar ratio for antibody conjugation was 1 : 10. When using individual Au nanorod sensors for the detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA), the lowest concentration recorded was ~1 aM (~6 × 10(5) molecules), corresponding to LSPR λ(max) shifts of ~4.2 nm. These results indicate that sensor miniaturization down to the nanoscale level, the reduction of steric hindrance, and optimization of size, shape, and aspect ratio of nanorods have led to a significant improvement in the detection limit of sensors.

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