Objective Research regarding the adverse outcomes of adolescent childbearing has suffered from many limitations such as a small sample size and non-representative samples. This study was conducted to determine the rate of teenage pregnancy among Jordanian adolescents and its associated adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Methods The study is a part of a comprehensive national study of perinatal mortality that was conducted between 2011 and 2012 in Jordan. All women who gave birth after 20 weeks of gestation in 18 maternity hospitals in Jordan between 2011 and 2012 were invited to participate in the study. Consenting women were interviewed by the trained midwives in these hospitals using a structured questionnaire prepared for the purpose of this study. Additional information was also collected based on the physical examination by the midwife and the obstetrician at admission and at discharge. Data on the newborn were also collected by the pediatric nurses and the neonatologists in these hospitals. Results The overall rate of teenage pregnancy [95% confidence interval (CI) was 6.2% (5.9%, 6.5%)]. Of the studied maternal and neonatal outcomes, women aged <20 years were more likely to deliver prematurely compared to women aged 20-35 years [odds ratio (OR)=1.5, 95% CI: 1.2, 1.9; p < 0.005)]. However, the two groups of women did not differ significantly in low birth weight delivery (OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 0.9, 1.5; p = 0.167) and neonatal mortality (OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 0.8, 1.3; p = 0.491) in the multivariate analysis. Conclusion Teenage pregnancy was associated with increased risk of premature delivery, apart from the effects of socioeconomic factors.