To evaluate the diagnostic value of the BACs-on-Beads (BoBs) assay for the rapid diagnosis of common aneuploidies and microdeletions. A total of 4961 pregnant women admitted to the Wuxi Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University from January 2017 to March 2019 were enrolled. BoBs assay and conventional karyotyping were applied to detect amniotic fluid samples with various indications for prenatal diagnosis. Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) and maternal cell contamination (MCC) tests were used for further validation. The overall abnormality detection rates (BoBs associated with karyotyping) were 4.25% (211/4961). The prenatal diagnosis success rate of karyotyping was 99.4% (4933/4961), compared to 100% (4961/4961) using the BoBs assays. The BoBs assay was similar to karyotyping for the detection of trisomy 21 (1.01%, 50/4961), trisomy 18 (0.40%, 20/4961), trisomy 13 (0.04%, 2/4961), and sex chromosomal aneuploidies (0.15%, 12/4961). The BoBs assay also identified sex chromosomal microduplications/microdeletions (1.73%, 86/4961), 22q11.2 microdeletions/microduplications (0.1%, 5/4961), and Cri du Chat syndrome (0.02%, 1/4961) which were missed by karyotyping. The sensitivity for the detection of numerical chromosomal abnormalities of the BoBs assay and karyotyping analysis was 100% (95/95, 95% CI: 1.0-1.0) and 98.9% (94/95, 95% CI: 0.969-1.010), respectively. The sensitivity of detecting structural chromosomal abnormalities in the BoBs assay was significantly higher than those of karyotyping (79.3%, 92/116, 95% CI: 0.718-0.868) versus 21.6% (25/116, 95% CI: 0.140-0.291) (p < .01). The BoBs assay is a reliable and rapid test for the detection of common aneuploidies and nine microdeletion syndromes with high sensitivity and accuracy in prenatal diagnosis. The assay can compensate for the limitations of karyotyping analysis.