Water is the only atmospheric parameter with three-phase state. An ultraviolet Raman lidar was developed for synchronous measurements for water vapor, liquid water and ice water in Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an, China (34.233°N, 108.911°E). An accurate retrieval method on the basis of interference degree is proposed for synchronous three-phase water mixing ratio profiles. Preliminary measurements are carried out in the Laser Radar Center of Remote Sensing of Atmosphere (LRCRSA). Several representative examples are obtained and validated the performance of Raman system. Combined with atmospheric temperature profiles, the synchronous water vapor, liquid water and ice water profiling are retrieved and revealed the variation characteristics in three-phase water. The effective detection can reach up to a height of 5 km under cloudy weather, and synchronized growth in water vapor and liquid water content was obtained in cloud layers. Continuous observations are also made under haze weather condition, and the temporal and spatial evolution trend of three-phase water in clouds at 2 km altitude are successfully realized.