Skin aging is a complex biological process mixing intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as sun exposure. At the molecular level, skin aging affects in particular the extracellular matrix proteins. Materials and Methods: Using Raman imaging, which is a nondestructive approach appropriate for studying biological samples, we analyzed how aging modifies the matrix proteins of the papillary and reticular dermis. Biopsies from the buttock and dorsal forearm of volunteers younger than 30 and older than 60 were analyzed in order to identify chronological and photoaging processes. Analyses were performed on skin section, and Raman spectra were acquired separately on the different dermal layers. Results: We observed differences in dermal matrix structure and hydration state with skin aging. Chronological aging alters in particular the collagen of the papillary dermis, while photoaging causes a decrease in collagen stability by altering proline and hydroxyproline residues in the reticular dermis. Moreover, chronological aging alters glycosaminoglycan content in both dermal compartments. Conclusion: Alterations of the papillary and reticular dermal matrix structures during photo-and chronological aging were clearly depicted by Raman spectroscopy.