While neither perioperative radiotherapy nor perioperative chemotherapy were able to improve the treatment results significantly, a progress in the field of primary and preoperative radiochemotherapy emerges. On locally restricted tumors the latest findings show that a simultaneous radiochemotherapy with Cisplatin is more effective than radiotherapy alone. 20 to 30% histologically verified complete remissions can be reached through preoperative radiochemotherapy. These results will influence future treatment concepts. Brachytherapy can be taken into consideration in highly palliative situations as exclusive method of treatment or for support of laser treatment or bouginage for removal of stenosis. As the number of clinically controlled studies is not sufficient the importance of the brachytherapy boost for potentially curative intentions is not yet clear. Up to now the intraluminal hyperthermia is a underestimated method for improving the results of radiotherapy. Our overview summarizes all presently published randomized studies and relevant phase I/II-studies.