Simple Summary This study evaluates how advanced image analyses (radiomic features) and machine learning algorithms can help to distinguish subtypes of kidney tumors in computed tomography (CT) images, which is important for further patient treatment. For 201 patients, the image analyses showed a moderate performance, but robustly performed across various imaging centers and even in cases with suboptimal image quality. In particular, distinguishing one specific subtype of kidney tumor (oncocytomas) from other subtypes proves to be challenging. The algorithms presented in this study can help in the clinical decision-making process for kidney tumor patients, for example, to decide whether to perform kidney surgery or not. Abstract This study evaluates the diagnostic performance of radiomic features and machine learning algorithms for renal tumor subtype assessment in venous computed tomography (CT) studies from clinical routine. Patients undergoing surgical resection and histopathological assessment of renal tumors at a tertiary referral center between 2012 and 2019 were included. Preoperative venous-phase CTs from multiple referring imaging centers were segmented, and standardized radiomic features extracted. After preprocessing, class imbalance handling, and feature selection, machine learning algorithms were used to predict renal tumor subtypes using 10-fold cross validation, assessed as multiclass area under the curve (AUC). In total, n = 201 patients were included (73.7% male; mean age 66 ± 11 years), with n = 131 clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC), n = 29 papillary RCC, n = 11 chromophobe RCC, n = 16 oncocytomas, and n = 14 angiomyolipomas (AML). An extreme gradient boosting algorithm demonstrated the highest accuracy (multiclass area under the curve (AUC) = 0.72). The worst discrimination was evident for oncocytomas vs. AML and oncocytomas vs. chromophobe RCC (AUC = 0.55 and AUC = 0.45, respectively). In sensitivity analyses excluding oncocytomas, a random forest algorithm showed the highest accuracy, with multiclass AUC = 0.78. Radiomic feature analyses from venous-phase CT acquired in clinical practice with subsequent machine learning can discriminate renal tumor subtypes with moderate accuracy. The classification of oncocytomas seems to be the most complex with the lowest accuracy.