Radioimmunoassay of progesterone in systemic and placental blood of pregnant rabbits and guinea pigs. 1. The level of progesterone in pregnant rabbits and guinea pigs serum was measured directly (without extraction) using a RadioImmunoAssay (RIA). 2. Hormonal concentrations in systemic blood were shown to increase with gestational age, being at their highest half-way through pregnancy (16.03 +/- 2.63 ng/ml for rabbits; 319.01 +/- 42.10 ng/ml for guinea pigs) and decreasing at the end of the pregnancy. 3. Progesterone was not detectable in rabbit placental blood, whereas a high level of this hormone was found in guinea pig placental blood, which increased with gestational age. From the 28th to the 56th post-coital day, the level increased from 143.22 +/- 13.15 to 283.30 +/- 36.84 ng/ml. 4. The method used enables to measure correctly progesterone concentrations in rabbit and guinea pig serum without extraction.