Patients containing diagnostic or therapeutic amounts of radionuclides present exposure problems for medical and technical personnel. It is essential that personnel be aware of the magnitude of exposure expected and the methods available for its reduction. The design of a nuclear medicine facility should consider patients as sources of exposure. The size of imaging areas may be increased to reduce exposure to attending personnel. Patients containing radioactivity should be segregated from other patients and their families. Hospitalized patients given therapeutic amounts of radionuclides represent sources of exposure and contamination to personnel providing care. The use of disposable materials and the monitoring of these materials for contamination will reduce contamination of the hospital environment. Adequate instruction of personnel is essential to programs using therapeutic amounts of radionuclides so that patients are not made to feel isolated because of the form of treatment they are receiving.