Radiation therapy contributes, with others therapeutic means, to cure many cancers without mutilation and sparing conservative functions. In France, in 2010, about 180,000 patients underwent external radiation therapy in 177 centers assumed by 660 radiation oncologists. Many progress and changes have been made during the past years with the implementation of new techniques as conformal and intensity modulated techniques. Renewal of innovative treatment machines is rapidly ongoing. Since 2007, after medical accidents, quality and security policies have been improved and coordinated to a national level with the active cooperation of the main institutional and professional partners. The new national "Plan Cancer 2009-2013" leads to improvement for patients to access to innovative and safe treatments and to clinical research.